During the Minoan civilization, many Minoans came here and ultimately foundedthe ancient city of Minoa, one of the first settlementsin Amorgos (at Moundouliain Katapola). Afterwards, the Naxians founded the ancient city of Arkesini (at Kastri) and the Milesians the ancient city ofAegiali(at Vigla in Tholaria). The habitants of Amorgos took part in the First Athenian Empire (478 BC), while in the following years the islandhad variouscaptors (Macedonians, Ptolemies, Samians, Rhodians). In the Roman era, Amorgos was used as a place of exile and in the 4th century AD the Christianization wasinitiated into the ancient cult sites. For the next few centuries, Saracen raiders over forced Amorgians to fortify themselves in the Castle atKastri and around the 23 towers of the island. With the arrival of an icon from Palestine dating back to the period of Byzantine Iconoclasm (8th-9th century AD), was foundedthe Monastery of Hozoviotissa, which was renovated in 1088 by Emperor AlexiosI Komnenos. The Venetian rule in Amorgos, during which the island was under the Duchy of the Aegean and the Venetian Marco ISanudo, left some surviving archaeological remains such as the Tower of Gavras, Kato Lakkos and the cobble-stoned ‘’Lozas’’). However, during the Turkish Empire, the island experienced economic success. In the most modern history, Amorgos was merged into the newly established Greek state after the Greek Revolution (1821), whereas in 1822, became the center of the temporary Greekstate. Also, in Amorgos during 1829 was built one of the first Greek schools at the expenses of the Monastery of Hozoviotissa. Throughout the World War II, Amorgos remainedinaccessible, and as the locals was experiencing many hardships they started moving to the big cities.